The primary goal of the research in the Disney Lab is to determine the role(s) that neuromodulators play in arousal, attention and memory – and by what circuit mechanisms they subserve those functions. Our current research addresses the noradrenergic, serotonergic, and cholinergic systems in the neocortex of mammals. The techniques we employ are diverse: we use biosensors that combine classical electrophysiological recording capabilities with the ability to measure the local chemical environment at high spatial and temporal resolution (electrochemistry); we combine electrophysiological recording with pharmacological manipulation to examine causal relationships between neuromodulation, neuronal activity and behavioral performance; and we study the structure of neuromodulatory systems in the neocortex from a comparative perspective at the light and electron microscopic levels.