The primary goal of the research in the Disney Lab is to determine the role(s) that neuromodulators play in arousal, attention and memory – and by what circuit mechanisms they subserve those functions. Our primary focus is on the noradrenergic and cholinergic systems in the neocortex of mammals. The techniques employed in the lab are diverse: we use a novel biosensor that combines classical electrophysiological recording capabilities with the ability to measure the local chemical environment at high spatial and temporal resolution; we combine electrophysiological recording with pharmacological manipulation to examine causal relationships between neuromodulation, neuronal activity and behavioral performance; and we study the structure of neuromodulatory systems in the neocortex from a comparative perspective at both the light and electron microscopic levels.